Lecture 04 Types of Production Systems

Lecture 04 Types of Production Systems


[FL] friends welcome to session four in our
course on operations management as we have seen in session one we have covered the topics
that we are going to cover in this course we have also seen the distribution of the
course we have seen that this course is a thirty hour course in which there will be
twelve weeks of discussion each week we will have half an hour sessions five sessions of
half an hour each in session two we have covered the basic objectives be prior to that we have
seen the definitions of the word operations management and then we have seen what are
the objectives of studying this course or what are the objectives of this process of
operations management in session three if you remember we have covered what are the
functions of the operations management personnel or what are the overall defined areas of working
of operations management team we have seen that for any organization there are three
broad verticals one is related to finance another is related to operations another is
related to the marketing so our focus primarily is on operations then
we have seen that what are the important areas or scope of operations of this subject we
have seen that starting from demand of the product to the design of the product then
to the production planning production control material handling system materials management
inventory control work system design capacity planning aggregate production planning there
is a wide scope of this subject that is operations management so we have seen that the scope
is very wide but sometimes we have to classify the scope so that we are able to understand
the overall framework of the subject somebody may ask a very simple question a laymans question
that what all do you study in operations management you need to have a very structured answer
to this question that we have covered these important topics in this course so we need
to have a structured answer the structured answer can be that starting from the conceptualization
of the product to the launch of the product in the market how it is getting transformed
into the final product managing the product development cycle is overall we can say the
broad umbrella under which all other subsystems can fall in
so we are starting from the conceptualization of the product then designing the product
then forecasting that how much volume of product would be demanded in the market or what is
the demand of that product then planning our facilities planning the production processes
and then planning the manpower who are going to convert the raw material into the product
then managing our capacity then doing the production control finally evaluating the
quality warehousing and finally the product is launched into the market so managing all
production operations usually we can say will fall under the overall umbrella the umbrella
we can call as the operations management so we have seen that it can maybe overall management
of the production system that it is a subsystem of the broader manufacturing system so we
are here managing the operations part of any manufacturing industry we are not directly
dealing with the finance we are not directly dealing with the marketing we are directly
dealing with the operations part of the organization so we have seen that within operations part
also there are so many sub components or sub elements or sub parts that we that we can
discuss or that fall under the scope of operations management or that fall under the overall
umbrella of operations management so sub topics we have seen and i think each
one of them we are going to address in this course we are going to study product design
and development we are going to study sales forecasting we are going to study plant layout
and facility location planning we are going to study aggregate production planning we
are going to study capacity planning we are going to study materials management so each
and everything that falls under the scope of operations management will be covered and
in summary we can say conversion of raw material into the final product managing the overall
transformation process right from the raw material to the final product will be the
scope of our study in this course but in order to remember what is the overall broad framework
where we can focus our efforts or focus our activities we can club them into five ps and
those five ps i am very quickly going to highlight today and then we will focus our attention
on these five ps in context of the production system that how we can classify the production
system there can be we can say different types of manufacturing activity happening in an
organization and how we can classify them that we will try to understand today
so let us quickly first see the operations management framework is divided into five
ps now what are these five ps what are the focus areas we can say we have to focus on
the product we have to focus on the plant we have to focus on the program in context
of the time we have to focus on the processes we have to focus on the people so these five
ps we have to manage in the overall framework of operations management in order to meet
our objectives what are the objectives to produce a product which is of right quality
in right quantity at right time within a reasonable cost so or within an acceptable cost so that
is what is our objective these are the five things on which we can focus so as we have
seen four words we can remember regarding the overall objectives of operations management
that is q q t c that is quality quantity time and cost similarly what we need to control
in order to get all these five things we need to focus on these five ps that is product
plant program processes and people so let us quickly see each one of these product
it is linked between production and it is a link between production and marketing so
marketing team will assess the needs and requirement of the market the needs and requirements of
the customers and then they will try to link it with manufacturing so once we have to see
that what we want to produce so that we will cover in our week on product design and development
we will try to see some of the tools and techniques which going to help us to make a successful
product firstly designing the product and then finally converting that product into
a tangible product after rapid prototyping or after prototyping so a product must have
performance quality and reliability aesthetics and ergonomics quantity and selling price
delivery schedule so these are the important we can say criteria related to a good product
that good product will be having good performance quality reliability cost justification it
should be able to satisfy the human needs and requirements at the defined time so delivery
schedule is important quantity is important selling price is important so first and foremost
is the product so we have to focus on product design and then we have to see all aspects
related to the product in our overall management of the operations then the plant the plant
accounts for major investment if you have studied the analysis or the financial analysis
you will see there will be some fixed assets there will be direct cost there will indirect
cost and accordingly we calculate the break even for the organization
so the plant accounts for the major investment the plant is concerned with design and layout
of buildings and offices reliability and maintenance of equipment safety of operations so we can
see that whenever we are thinking of the plant we have to take into account all these things
that the operations must be safe operations must be maintenance free or maybe may require
the least or minimum maintenance then the layout should be such that we have optimal
utilisation of the floor space so all these points have to be taken into account so plant
layout and facility location design is also very very important so plant layout must allow
smooth movement of men and materials that is also one of the objectives of plant layout
then type of layout depend is dependent on production type volume of demand etcetera
so we will see today the types of production system there are intermittent type of production
system there are continuous type of production system so that type of layout will depend
upon the type of production system the volume of demand for example we require very high
you can say production rate or the demand is continuous we have to supply the product
at a very fast pace that will dictate or have a bearing on the type of layout that we are
planning for the operations so first thing we have seen that we have to focus on product
then we have to focus on the plant that is going to convert that raw material into the
product form or is going to facilitate the transformation process of the raw material
so that we get a good quality product so two things are product and then plant where the
transformation will take place so here we have seen that what are important criteria
when on which we can say whether the plant or the facility design is good or bad if it
is making optimal utilisation of resources it is ensuring smooth movement of men and
material it is minimizing the wastage of time and effort we can say that yes it is a good
plant design so we can see where we have to focus our energy we have to focus our energy
on product design and development we have to focus our energy on facilities location
and layout design then we have to focus our energy on process or the transformation process
that is converting the raw material into the final product so the methods used to create
a product or transform the raw materials into the product form
now selection of a particular process depends upon the following factors we have to take
into account the available capacity so our capacity planning comes into picture manpower
skills available so people comes into picture type of production system layout of plant
it is related to the previous secti[on]- previous point that we have discussed that is plant
layout and facility location safety maintenance required manufacturing cost involved so we
have to focus on all these factors to come out with a solution that which is the most
efficient and effective process for our you can say requirement or for our target our
target is of quality and quantity of the final product so as per our requirement which process
will give us the desired output so we have to take a decision based on all these factors
that is capacity manpower skills type of production system layout of a plan then safety of the
operations maintenance of the operations manufacturing cost we can see this list can be endless there
can be other criteria and parameters also which will affect the selection of the process
for the transformation or the transformation process for finally creating our product creating
a product means making a product or fabricating a product manufacturing of product producing
a product so basically we have to see that which transformation process will be most
effective and efficient so we have seen three things we have to focus
on the product we have to focus on the plant we have to focus on the process then we have
to focus on the program we have to see that how in what time space or in what time frame
we have to create our product so program refers to the time table of production very easy
in your classes or wherever you are working you have a time table you have a time when
you are going to enter into the office there may be a time when you have to leave your
office so program refers to the time table so it can it prepare the schedule for purchasing
so we have to get the raw material transforming we have to see which processes are involved
in the creation of the product or manufacturing of the product we have to see which machines
have to be meant have to go under regular maintenance at what intervals of time we have
to see the manage of cash flow we have to see the storage or management of cash flow
we have to manage and then storage and transport so time domain is also very very import important
and therefore we have to manage the overall manufacturing programme in such a way that
our delivery schedules are met finally the most important part that is the people so
people are a part of organization progress of organization depends on attitude and skills
of the working people so we have to ensure that we are providing an environment to our
workers where they can feel comfortable and motivated to work for the objectives of organization
or work for achieving the targets set by the organization so we have to ensure the overall
wellbeing of our human resource we not only the physical wellbeing but also the mental
wellbeing of our work force or the human resource because once our work force is motivated they
will work out wonders for the organization so we have to focus on people also so the
concepts of work system design concepts of the design of a system in such a way that
the worker feels comfortable and motivated to work for the organization that is also
coming under the overall framework of operations management so job satisfaction of people depends
upon good match between the people and the jobs and therefore the concept of ergonomic
design of work places is very very important and we will cover the concept of ergonomics
in our course on product design and development that when we are designing a product we must
con consider the aspect of ergonomics that the product is so designed that it is easy
for an operator or a customer or a user to use that product
similar concepts can be applied in work system design also that the person when he is performing
his task or job or activity in an organization he must be able to do it in the most effective
manner with minimum fatigue and minimum discomfort so he must be able to comfortably do his job
in the organization so we have to ensure that the jobs match with the people people also
enjoy doing their work so it is possible by providing them right motivation right kind
of training then conditions of work and safety must be ensured and proper wages and salaries
so if the employees motivated he feels like coming to the company because the environment
is congenial for doing the job he is properly trained to do his task and he is getting adequate
salary matching with his skills and the amount of work he is doing i do not believe that
or i do not feel that any worker will have any problem working for an organization
so if we focus on these five ps ah starting from the product then the plant then we can
see the process the program and lastly the people if we focus on all five ps in the overall
framework of an organization if we manage these five ps properly we will be able to
achieve the objective of operations management so the overall scope of operations management
must focus on these five ps in order to be successful so or in order to ensure the success
of an organization so now we will try to see that what are the different types of production
system currently we have focused i think all learners must be now acquainted well with
why we are studying this subject where we have to focus our attention what are the areas
of concern what are the factors that we need to look forward to when we are managing the
different aspects of operation now we will see what are the types of systems
and what are the maybe important characteristics related to this system and how the things
very in context of these five ps for example if we have to ah basically we will see there
are two types of production system intermittent type of production system and a continuous
type of production system so we will see in context of people how the two systems vary
in case of intermittent the product design me keep on changing from time to time today
we are producing a specific design of a product but there may be a change in order and the
complete redesign of the product may be required or there may be a new order in which we have
to manufacture a completely new design what type of skills are required for the people
i think you can answer it very quickly when the product design is changing and a regular
basis or at a regular intervals of time we require a person or we require people who
can adapt to this type of changes they have a versatile skill set whereas own a on the
other side if there is a continuous type of production there is a regular demand and we
are producing same product maybe for three or five years what type of skills are required
specialised skill of a person because he has to the same task on a regular basis so we
do not require a versatile skills set for a person who is working on a specific operation
in a continuous type of production system so similarly that time that is the program
the plant layout the process is used the product that we are producing all these five ps the
product plant process program and people all these five or related to the types of production
system or they are interrelated because we will see that when we see the type of production
system and the characteristics of each one of these production systems we will see that
their directly related to these five ps and in that production system how these five ps
have to manage that is where the engineering skills will come into picture
so let us latest quickly go to the topic of production systems now production system just
for definition it is a manufacturing subsystem so we can say manufacturing is on a broader
perspective production is a subset we can say or a subsystem of the overall manufacturing
activity so manufacturing subsystem that includes all functions required to design produce distribute
and service are manufactured product so you can see starting from product design to the
act of creating that product or producing that product or fabricating that product or
manufacturing that product so starting from the design of the product to the production
of the product to the distribution of the product and finally if there is some problem
the service of the product comes under the overall production system elements are we
have seen this diagram two three times that there are inputs into the system then there
outputs from the system and there is a transformation happening to the input so that we get a usable
or a tangible product in the output so input transportation ah transformation sorry and
the output are three elements of any production system
now what are the types of production system that can be grouped in two categories broadly
so there are intermittent type of production system and there are continuous type of production
systems so we can see type of production system broadly classified into two intermittent and
type of production systems and continuous type of production system then sub classifications
are there for intermittent type what are sub classification project jobbing and batch and
continuous side we have sub classifications mass and process type of production flows
so in many good books and in many ah we can say websites you will find out three classifications
ah based on the type of activities involved or the characteristics involved you will see
job shop type of production system batch type of production system and a mass or continuous
type of production system but here we are trying to further classify them into two broad
categories that one is intermittent where the demand of the product is changing over
a period of time and continuous is when there is a continuous production of the product
so one simple example that i usually give for continuous type of production system is
the production of power either by hydropower or by coal coal based power project so you
see continuous production is there once the production of power stops there is a shutdown
of power maybe in certain number of cities or towns so that is a continuous type of production
system we have input maybe water is coming ah flowing in the river you make a dam you
stop of water and then use that water for producing the hydropower that is continuous
type of production system and intermittent can be a workshop that we have a maybe in
a market where a person has ah maybe put up to machines and these machines are being used
for on a job shop basis you go there the time ah i need a threading on this parts
so what the person will do he will mount that component on the machine make a thread on
that component hand it over to you so it is design changes are very frequent your requirement
goes to the person and then he is managing only that particular product for you job shop
type maybe you are going for a specific job to that person so we we can say we have seen
that two extreme cases continuous manufacturing and a product based manufacturing or a specific
job based production system so basically intermittent is where the demand is not continuous and
continuous production system is where continuously you are produce so we will very quickly try
to understand the basic aspects now intermittent production systems intermittent means something
that starts may be initiates and stops at regular or irregular intervals of time
so we can say that intermittent is time to time production system in the intermittent
production system goods are produced based on customers ordered as i have told you go
to a shop and maybe tell that i need this particular product i need threading here i
need turning here so a person who has the lathe machine will work on your specific order
and try to satisfy your requirement large variety of products are produced production
of goods of acceptable quality now you see that the design can change i may have a different
requirement the other person have a different requirement so the product design changes
are very very frequents of varieties of products are produced in intermittent type of production
systems this this system is very flexible because the demand is changing continuously
so as per the demand the system will operate and produce the product now what are the features
now you can try this can be an assignment try to match the five ps with these ah characteristics
so what are the features of intermittent production system very quickly we can see flow of production
is not continuous variety of products are produced so you can see variety of products
so focus is on products the first p of the overall framework of operations management
volume of production is small so it is related to the process so volume of production is
small general purpose machines are used because the designs are changing continuously so we
cannot have a specific dedicated machine so we need to have a very very versatile and
general purpose machines sequence of operation changes as per design and production depends
upon the customers order so we can see that it is a flexible type of system that is the
intermittent type of production system now continuous production system we can see that
in continuous means something that operates constantly so it is a continuous as i have
taken an example of hydro power generation it is the continuous process without any irregularities
or frequent halts goods are produced continuously as per the demand forecast goods are produced
on a large scale for stocking and selling so we can see that it is a continue system
goods are produced on a continuous basis so goods are not produced on customer order so
we can say may be we can take example of readymade garments also readymade garments are continuously
produced by the company based on the marketing and based on the tastes and the fashion ah
a prevailing in a particular time domain so it is not that if i will order then only the
company will produce that shirts so it is not based on the customer order continuous
continues production is there the inputs and outputs are standardized along with the production
process and sequence again coming to the same example forty two size forty size forty four
shirt so the output is standardized the they have to produce their pro product based on
the standardized ah we can say sizes in case of a ah automatic ah production of ah garment
manufacturing so the inputs and outputs are standardized along with the production process
and sequence so the process is also standardized there we will be ah dedicated department for
cutting the ah you can say cloth and then there can be stitching and then there can
be finishing so we can say the inputs and outputs are standardized along with the production
process as well as the sequence is also standardized now what are the features of a continuous
production system so features of a continuous production system are flow production is continuous
and not intermittent products are standardized here in previous case product design is changing
continuously here the products are standardized may be one example of a continuous production
system can be manufacturing of automobiles so once the design is fixed so you will continuously
keep on producing that design or that particular week what we say the variant of a particular
model of car products re produced as per quality standards products are produced in anticipation
of demand so we have a anticipation we have a forecast of the demand so that ah accordingly
we will ah schedule our production standardized rooting sheets and schedules are prepared
so the process is more or less automatic the schedules are also produced automatically
and we are able to meet our schedules because the there are not many frequent design changes
not many frequent process sequence changes so more or less we are able to meet our targets
of time so you can see that there is the difference between the two types of production systems
that is the intermittent type of production system so job shop and batch type of production
systems will fall under the intermittent type of production system and continuous or mass
type of production systems will fall under the continuous production system
so broadly we can see the types of production systems can be classified into two broad categories
that is intermittent type and the continuous type and we will see that depending upon the
type of production system being adopted or being followed in a particular organization
our operations management tools and techniques will vary or we have to adjust the operations
management methodology specific to the specific type of production system being followed yes
but the overall we can say objective of operations management will remain same to ensure the
quantity quality in specified time at reasonable course overall objectives will remain same
in spite of or in we can say irrelevant to the type of production system being followed
so we have a out we have a objectives of the operations management that is clear to us
now depending upon the types of production systems being followed we will follow the
principles of operations management and we will try to manage both types of production
systems whether it is intermittent type or it is continuous type so the learning or we
can say the understanding or the development of knowledge or the know how related to the
basic principles and rules and guidelines related to operations management will help
us to manage both types of system the intermittent type of production systems also as well as
the continuous type of production systems also
so with this we close todays session we have tried to understand the overall framework
of operations management where we need to focus our attention the five ps in the overall
framework and then we have tried to broadly classify the types of production systems into
intermittent type and the continuous type and we have tried to figure out what are the
specific characteristics of the intermittent type of production system as well as the continuous
type of production system in our next session we will focus on the last session on these
fundamental we ah fundamental discussion related to the operations management in our subsequent
discussion we will focus on specific ah may be areas or specific sessions or specific
ah we can say tools or techniques which will help us to manage our operations properly
and in week two our focus will be on product design and development
thank you

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